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Bitcoin’s Software Has Been Rolled Back Before

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When Binance lost $40 million to hackers this week, the crypto community discussed reorganizing the chain after it was suggested by a developer from MIT. Many people were upset by this proposition, declaring that there was no way a coordinated effort with miners could be pulled off. However, most bitcoiners don’t seem to remember that a similar centralized decision was made in 2013, when Btc Guild’s hashrate was leveraged to downgrade the main chain from Bitcoin 0.8 to version 0.7.

Also read: Europol Claims New Scalps – Chaos as Darknet Markets are Downed

Crypto Community Outraged Over Reorg Discussion

Cryptocurrency advocates have been all riled up discussing a theoretical reorganization of the Bitcoin Core (BTC) blockchain. The conversation heated up after it was suggested by the developer Jeremy Rubin and Binance CEO Changpeng Zhao (CZ), who mentioned it after his exchange lost $40 million worth of BTC. Some people became extremely upset at the mere discussion of a reorganization and stated that there was no way it was possible. People have argued the subject for hours and have written long-winded posts filled with theories and calculations.

Bitcoin's Software Has Been Rolled Back Before

There are a couple of ways to trigger a blockchain reorganization, which occurs when the chain of recorded blocks is invalidated or orphaned by either a 51% attack or another method, forcing miners back to a point where they have to start again from a specific block height. It’s akin to rolling back a recorded history of transactions and then re-recording them again, but of course the new transactions would never be the same as the ones that were erased. If this technique was used, some believe the history of the Binance transaction which saw the loss of 7,000 BTC would be erased as well.

The Coordinated Effort to Roll Back to Bitcoin Version 0.7 in 2013

After all the discussions on social media concerning centralized entities possibly reorganizing the chain to erase the loss $40 million, it’s interesting to revisit the history books to see if there were any similar events back in the day. In March 2013, Arvind Narayanan described a similar situation where developers coordinated to get a large mining pool to revert the chain to prior software after an accidental fork took place. There was a severe issue with the compatibility between Bitcoin client 0.7 and version 0.8, which caused the main chain to fork into two. In fact, Narayanan detailed that a centralized decision was utilized to help find a solution.

Bitcoin's Software Has Been Rolled Back Before

After the crisis was assessed BTC, developers were introduced with an idea from Btc Guild which wrote: “I can single-handedly put 0.7 back to the majority hash power — I just need confirmation that that’s what should be done,” in a developer chat room. Pieter Wuille responded: “IMHO, that is what you should do, but we should have consensus first.” Narayanan’s paper underlined the centralization factor when he remarked: “So much for decentralization — The fact that Btc Guild can tip the scales here is crucial.”

“The hash power distribution at that time appears to be roughly 2/3 vs 1/3 in favor of the 0.8 branch, and Btc Guild controlled somewhere between 20% and 30% of total hash power,” the researcher noted at the time. “By switching, Btc Guild loses the work they’ve done on 0.8 since the fork started. On the other hand, they are more or less assured that the 0.7 branch will win and the fork will end, so at least their post-downgrade mining power won’t be wasted.”

Bitcoin's Software Has Been Rolled Back Before

Narayanan also stressed that if the hashrate was instead distributed among thousands of small independent miners, it would prove way more difficult to coordinate the effort. The paper describes how Btc Guild sacrificed their mining revenue for the good of the network. The author also hypothesized how developers would be able to convince another large pool operator if Btc guild didn’t believe it would win. After the plan was agreed upon by various developers, the alert notice was sent out which said: “URGENT: chain fork, stop mining on version 0.8.” In addition to the alert, Bitcoin Core developer Pieter Wuille told miners: “If you’re a miner, please do not mine on 0.8 code — Stop, or switch back to 0.7 — Btc Guild is switching to 0.7, so the old chain will get a majority hashrate soon.” After Narayanan summed up the events on how developers and Btc Guild fixed the situation, he explained his opinion that even though it was centralized it was the right decision.

Vitalik Buterin: ‘Incident Brings Forth Uncomfortable Facts About Bitcoin’s Notion of Decentralization’

At the time, however, the inventor of Ethereum, Vitalik Buterin disagreed and said “the incident opens up serious questions about the nature of the Bitcoin protocol and puts into the spotlight some uncomfortable facts about Bitcoin’s notion of ‘decentralization.’” Buterin also emphasized that the other aspect of Bitcoin’s decentralization that this incident called into question was that of mining pools. “The reason why the controlled switch to the 0.7 fork was even possible was that over 70% of the Bitcoin network’s hash power was controlled by a small number of mining pools and ASIC miners, and so the miners could all be individually contacted and convinced to immediately downgrade.”

Bitcoin's Software Has Been Rolled Back Before

So the question is, how does the BTC hashrate distribution look today in comparison to when Btc Guild was a dominant miner back in 2013? Today a 51% coordinated effort would take around five mining pools to work together as each of the dominant BTC pools have 10% or more of the global hashrate. The task would be extraordinarily expensive compared to doing this maneuver in 2013. But so-called experts shouting that a coordinated 51% reorganization couldn’t happen today, especially after a similar instance took place in 2013, are being very naive. Even Buterin concluded in his synopsis of the 2013 situation that people were worried about centralization after it happened.

In an op-ed on March 12, 2013, Buterin pondered: “Some worry, if a centralized core of the Bitcoin community is powerful enough to successfully undertake these emergency measures to set right the Bitcoin blockchain, what else is it powerful enough to do?”

What do you think about the similarities between the 2019 Binance discussion involving a reorganization and the March 2013 rollback? Let us know what you think about this subject in the comments section below.


Image credits: Shutterstock, Blockchain.com, Pixabay, Arvind Narayanan blog Freedom to Tinker, and Twitter.


Verify and track bitcoin cash transactions on our BCH Block Explorer, the best of its kind anywhere in the world. Also, keep up with your holdings, BCH, and other coins, on our market charts at Bitcoin.com Markets, another original and free service from Bitcoin.com.

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2013, 2019 Binance Loss, 7000 BTC, Arvind Narayanan, Blockchain Reorganization, BTC Guild, centralized decision, coordinated, Crypto Twitter Arguments, Fork, hash power, Hashrate, March 2013, Mining Pools, N-Featured, Peter Wuille, Reorg
Jamie Redman

Jamie Redman is a financial tech journalist living in Florida. Redman has been an active member of the cryptocurrency community since 2011. He has a passion for Bitcoin, open source code, and decentralized applications. Redman has written thousands of articles for news.Bitcoin.com about the disruptive protocols emerging today.

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TD Ameritrade Says US Stock Market Stability is Luring Investors, But Here’s Why the Dow Might Not Bounce Back

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Throughout the previous two weeks, analysts have most often attributed the restoration of Dow Jones to technical elements, expressing skepticism towards the sustainability of the U.S. inventory marketplace rally.

This week, Shawn Cruz, a dealer technique supervisor at $30 billion brokerage large TD Ameritrade, stated that the sentiment within the U.S. inventory marketplace has progressed, particularly amongst fundamental-based traders.

“[Indicators of economic stability are] giving the more fundamental-based investors faith coming back into the market, which is then driving what technical traders are seeing on their screen,” Cruz stated, speaking to The Wall Street Journal.

Can the Dow Jones Rally?

Since December 24, the Dow Jones has initiated one of the spectacular turnarounds in recent times, improving from 21,782.2 issues to 25,411.52 issues inside lower than two months.

dow jones

The Dow has assembled a large restoration since its late-December lows, however it would now not proceed thru to a brand new all-time top.

The Dow Jones used to be prone to coming into a undergo marketplace in mid-December after the Nasdaq Composite recorded a 20 % drop from its all-time top and formally bought a undergo marketplace standing.

The fast expansion of the Dow Jones previously two months has led traders to query the standards of the motion of the U.S. inventory marketplace.

Apart from technical elements, maximum foremost elements reminiscent of geopolitical risks and weak earnings reports from primary conglomerates within the U.S. stay because the core problems for traders.

On February 4, CCN reported that Raymond Jones fastened source of revenue capital markets head Kevin Giddis stated the U.S. marketplace lacks stimulus to develop within the upcoming months.

“There is obviously a separation between where the equity market sees the world and where the bond market sees the world. We don’t know what’ll cause the next recession, but at the same time, you flip it to the other side and you don’t see much that’ll stimulate economic growth.”

In the ultimate seven days, the Dow Jones has retraced from 25,411.52 issues to 25,045.96. Currently, the Dow is prone to falling beneath the 25,000 stage.

To maintain the certain development of the U.S. inventory marketplace in contemporary weeks, Direxion Investments managing director Paul Brigandi stated that it is vital for the marketplace to take care of its momentum.

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Many traders are buying and selling according to sentiment and are allocating capital into the inventory marketplace once more as primary indexes started to get better.

“Momentum is a key component right now. A lot of people are jumping in to get on board,” he stated.

Investors Have to Consider Short-Term Stock Market Risks

Some analysts foresee a continual rally for the Dow Jones. But, others together with Morgan Stanley senior portfolio supervisor Andrew Slimmon worry for the vulnerable company income launched previously 30 days.

Apart from the oil business, which outperformed the expectancies of Wall Street following a decline in the cost of oil, maximum primary industries have struggled.

The monetary sector has carried out particularly poorly within the fourth quarter with maximum banks reducing again on their projected revenues.

Slimmon said:

“I’m worried. As much as companies look like they made fourth-quarter numbers, the 2019 estimates are dropping, and it strengthens my concern.”

With vulnerable company income, no important construction within the U.S.-China industry talks, and the declining euro-zone financial system, the U.S. marketplace is also prone to experiencing a non permanent development reversal.

As emphasised via TD Ameritrade strategist Shawn Cruz and Direcixion investments govt Paul Brigandi, momentum is an important for the U.S. inventory marketplace.

If the Dow Jones fails to maintain balance above the 25,000 stage, a chance of an extra decline may just accentuate and tremendously modify the present sentiment available in the market which stays certain to this date.

In the non permanent, massive volatility within the U.S. marketplace is anticipated, however analysts stay unsure whether or not that might imply a rally to dance again from this week’s losses or an extra drop to December ranges.

Featured Image from Shutterstock

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Ripple Offered Multimillion-Dollar XRP Bonuses to Lure Top Tech Talent

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Silicon Valley fintech startup Ripple is going out of its solution to say it didn’t create the cryptocurrency XRP. But that doesn’t imply the corporate doesn’t depend on its huge reserves of the token when relationship potential hires.

One engineer who requested to stay nameless confirmed CoinDesk a recruiting e-mail from past due 2018 that promised an XRP package deal from Ripple of price as much as $three million, along with a beneficiant wage be offering.

According to the corporate’s LinkedIn, Ripple is having a look to rent greater than a dozen engineers and technical mavens, together with a brand new head of engineering for its xCurrent project, which goals to rival the legacy messaging community SWIFT on the heart of the present world bills infrastructure.

Salaries might range in step with seniority, however in response to conversations with two potential recruits, XRP bonuses for engineers normally vary in price from $1 million to $6 million, in step with the corporate’s personal analysis. As of press time, XRP is buying and selling at more or less $0.30 in line with token.

(Ripple declined to touch upon bonus applications, together with whether or not they’re nonetheless being introduced in 2019.)

One former Ripple worker, who requested to stick nameless for worry of prison retribution, instructed CoinDesk he by no means heard of such XRP bonus applications earlier than 2017. However, he additionally famous beneficiant fairness offers are usual in Silicon Valley.

In September 2018, one potential engineering recruit, who requested to stay nameless as a result of he works at an organization that may at some point collaborate with Ripple, instructed CoinDesk that he additionally won an e-mail from Ripple that stood out as it introduced profitable XRP applications, supposedly price $three million to $6 million. Both engineers lately paintings at top-tier tech firms in Silicon Valley, albeit the second one programmer at a crypto corporate (thus the upper be offering).

Additionally, the e-mail claimed the worldwide marketplace cap of “its [Ripple’s] coin” was once price $48 billion. According to CoinMarketCap, at the day the e-mail was once despatched XRP’s world marketplace cap was once nearer to $13.three billion. The potential engineer recruit instructed CoinDesk he discovered this discrepancy alarming.

Speaking to the peculiar bonus providing that stuck his eye, the nameless engineer stated Ripple is “a very unpopular entity in the crypto sphere among technologists,” so he believes the corporate is “forced to go above and beyond to attract engineers” all the way through the endure marketplace.

Bear recruiting

A Ripple consultant instructed CoinDesk the corporate lately employs more or less 90 engineers and generation mavens, with plans to rent “aggressively” in an effort to increase its tool as a carrier providing plus improve RippleInternet cell wallets and payout processes.

This is a part of an ongoing hiring spree. The corporate consultant stated that Ripple added 100 new staff around the corporate in 2018, including:

“We move fast to acquire the best talent out there – especially considering the highly competitive nature of other startups who want to hire similar candidates.”

Former Ripple group liaison Jon Holmquist instructed CoinDesk that developer salaries and reimbursement are ballooning throughout Silicon Valley. As such, Holmquist stated any hiring demanding situations may well be associated with the wider marketplace downturn, no longer Ripple particularly.

“No one wants to join crypto for the first time during a bear market. I think that’s more of an industry-wide problem,” Holmquist stated. “There’s always a shortage of talent.”

The nameless engineer disagreed, making an allowance for the opposite kinds of recruiting emails he automatically receives.

“This is for a devops role, which is generally harder to find, but these are really big numbers,” the nameless engineer stated, regarding each the wage and XRP bonus package deal. “It comes across a little bit desperate.”

Serial entrepreneur Dave Schukin tweeted remaining June that the corporate introduced him greater than $175,000 as a base wage, which seems in step with the opposite be offering shared with CoinDesk.

In phrases of what Ripple is searching for, the corporate consultant stated they’re recruiting tool mavens with Java or C++ language experience and an plentiful dose of teachability.

“We are not necessarily looking for blockchain experts – we can always teach domain-specific expertise,” she stated. “We also think it’s important that our engineers carry themselves with humility and are able to think creatively about how to solve hard problems.”

Ripple image by way of Shutterstock

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John McAfee Living in a Constant State of Paranoia Launches Podcast

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By CCN: Following John McAfee’s triumphant return to Twitter after a brief hiatus, the software mogul and his wife on Tuesday announced a new podcast about life on the run.

McAfee’s Life on the Run

This John McAfee gif illustrates his MBTI

The outspoken bitcoin bull’s DGAF disposition. | Source: Giphy

In their announcement, McAfee and his wife describe living on the run and hiding from the government. The software mogul also informs followers that the couple’s brief social media absence was because of an incoming raid.

Can’t Keep John McAfee Down

The outspoken presidential longshot is also a fugitive who will face arrest upon return to the U.S. But McAfee – a bitcoin perma-bull – refuses to let any government keep him down. Following the couple’s announcement today, McAfee posted characteristic crypto advice on Twitter.

He addressed the bitcoin price, suggesting that people who ask him when bitcoin is trading at $7,900 whether they should wait to buy it sound more ridiculous than he looks while getting his hair processed.

“If you like bitcoin, buy it. Who cares whether it’s at $15 or $1,500 or $10,000. If it’s a good deal, f***ing buy it. End of story.”

He then promised to show everyone his hair after it’s done.

Although McAfee and his wife describe their podcast as a chronicle of the couple’s unconventional lives, one major theme is sure to touch on the benefits of decentralized money. If McAfee holds bitcoin, no matter where he goes, he can always use it. Governments may be able to seize the couple’s house, boat, and bank accounts, but they can’t stop bitcoin. At least not without shutting down the internet. Incidentally, McAfee recently expressed an interest in Dogecoin.

Craig Wright vs. McAfee

McAfee is reasonably popular among crypto proponents. But still, some argue that bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies were not designed to help people circumvent taxes or laws.  Among them is controversial figure Craig Wright.

Wright, who registered a copyright on the Bitcoin white paper this morning, is one of McAfee’s most vocal opponents. Wright will undoubtedly argue that McAfee’s podcast will slow mass adoption and increase the public perception that bitcoin’s primary use is for tax evasion and other nefarious purposes.

McAfee Doesn’t Give a F**k!

For those who might disparage McAfee’s unconventional methods of bitcoin evangelism, the presidential candidate has a message:

“As if I give a flying f**k what you think!”

Controversial, outspoken, and intelligent, John McAfee’s podcast is sure to attract a broad audience. But will the McAfee podcast “highlight” the advantages of a decentralized economy and fuel mass adoption or the opposite? Only time will tell.

Disclaimer: The views expressed in the article are solely those of the author and do not represent those of, nor should they be attributed to, CCN.

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Binance’s BNB Token Hits All-Time High in Bitcoin Value

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Binance Coin (BNB), the token issued via the arena’s greatest cryptocurrency trade via industry quantity Binance, has prolonged its contemporary positive aspects to set a brand new all-time prime in bitcoin-denominated price.

At press time, BNB is buying and selling at 0.002619 BTC ($9.60) however in the past reached 0.002688 at 10:00 UTC Monday – the cryptocurrency’s easiest worth in its complete one and part 12 months historical past, in keeping with information from Binance. 

Binance first indexed BNB for buying and selling on July 14, 2017, and the token has accomplished a just about 9,600 % go back on funding from its December 2017 initial coin offering (ICO) worth of $0.10.

At the similar time, BNB nonetheless has a long way to move earlier than drawing near it’s all-time prime in USD price. Current figures constitute a decline of 58 % from BNB’s USD prime of $22.48 accomplished on Jan. 12, 2018, information from OnchainFX additional finds.

BNB’s BTC-tied prime got here after a duration of sturdy efficiency that performed out during the last a number of weeks.

As may also be observed within the desk under, BNB has considerably outperformed the marketplace chief and international’s greatest cryptocurrency bitcoin during the last 90-days, together with a 35 % building up previously seven days by myself when bitcoin rose simply five %.

BNB’s contemporary enlargement has catapulted it to transform the arena’s 10th greatest cryptocurrency via marketplace capitalization, which now registers $1.33 billion, in keeping with information from Coinmarketcap.com.

While BNB could also be the one well known cryptocurrency to hit a brand new report of types, it has no longer been the most efficient performer.

Data from OnchainFX finds 3 cryptocurrencies have outshined BNB previously seven days together with ARK, Dentacoin, and Theta Token who’ve published positive aspects of 35 %, 43 % and 43 %, respectively, towards the United States greenback.

Disclosure: The writer holds BTC, AST, REQ, OMG, FUEL, ZIL, 1st and AMP on the time of writing.

Binance phone symbol by means of Shutterstock

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New Proposed ETF Would Mix Bitcoin Futures With Sovereign Debt

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A brand new proposed exchange-traded fund (ETF) would spend money on bitcoin futures – even though handiest as a part of a bigger set of extra conservative investments.

Reality Shares ETF Trust, a department of Blockforce Capital, which already introduced one ETF with blockchain products, filed a Form N1-A with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) Monday in partnership with NYSE Arca, taking a look to release the Reality Shares Blockforce Global Currency Strategy ETF.

If authorized, the fund would spend money on a portfolio which incorporates “high-quality, short-term sovereign debt instruments listed for trading on U.S. exchanges and denominated in U.S. dollar, euro, British pounds sterling, Japanese yen and Swiss francs,” in addition to bitcoin futures, cash marketplace mutual price range and/or different coins equivalents, in step with the submitting.

The fund would spend money on cash-settled bitcoin futures contracts, moderately than bodily settled. In different phrases, when the contract expires, the investor would obtain the money an identical of its worth, moderately than precise bitcoins. According to the submitting, “the fund will not invest directly in bitcoin.”

The proposal explains:

“The Adviser initially constructs the Fund’s portfolio by investing approximately (i) an equal-weight of 15 [percent] of the Fund’s net assets in Fixed Income Securities denominated in each Fiat Significant Global Currency; (ii) 15 [percent] of the Fund’s net assets representing notional exposure in Bitcoin Futures and (iii) 10 [percent] of the Fund’s net assets in Money Market Instruments for margin and/or cash management purposes, each as measured at the time of purchase (the ‘Target Portfolio’).”

Reality Shares’ submitting is going on so as to add that “the Adviser seeks to reallocate the Fund’s assets approximately to the Target Portfolio on the business day following the date that one or more of the Significant Global Currencies moves by more than 20 [percent] up or down from its original 15 [percent] portfolio equal-weight, calculated as a percentage of the Fund’s net assets.”

Initially, Reality Shares plans to spend money on the bitcoin futures presented via the main Chicago futures exchanges, Cboe and CME, even though it could search for different bitcoin futures merchandise sooner or later.

Bitcoin ETFs

Reality Shares’ proposal comes at the heels of 2 bitcoin-specific ETF filings made via Bitwise Asset Management and VanEck/SolidX last month. While Bitwise’s proposal used to be additionally filed via NYSE Arca, VanEck and SolidX are running with Cboe BZX Exchange.

The VanEck/SolidX proposal is famously just like an previous proposal that many was hoping will be the first bitcoin ETF authorized. However, the firms pulled the previous version after the extended U.S. government shutdown, pronouncing on the time that they had been not able to continue discussions about the proposal with the SEC.

Both of those bitcoin ETFs range from Monday’s submitting in that they don’t come with sovereign debt tools.

The SEC has now not but revealed Reality Shares’ rule trade proposal on its web page, indicating that it has now not but begun inspecting the product. Once the proposal is revealed within the Federal Register, the SEC could have at maximum 240 days to resolve whether or not to approve or reject the rule of thumb trade proposal.

T-bill image by the use of JHerbstman / Wikimedia Commons

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